Editor-in-Chief: Janusz Ostrowski IAHN Bulletin is the official E-Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Nephrology
INTRODUCTION We are pleased to present to our readers, members and friends of our Association, as well as to those simply interested in the history of nephrology, the second issue of the IAHN Bulletin. I am happy to say that I have been receiving a lot positive feedback from all around about our publication. This seems to be proved by the fact that the ERA-EDTA has decided to feature the link to the Bulletin on their official website. Therefore, I take this opportunity to thank the ERA-EDTA Board for offering this possibility. As promised, subsequent issues of this information service will be released every six months. The past half-year has seen numerous important events worth mentioning such as historical sessions held during national congresses of nephrology, the ERA-EDTA congress in Budapest, Hungary and others. All reports on events concerning the history of nephrology provided to the editors of the Bulletin are invariably welcome. As we are heading for the 11 IAHN Congress to be organised in Larissa, Greece I would like to invite all of you to visit the Congress website. Janusz Ostrowski
THE LOUROS FOUNDATION The Louros Foundation for the History of Medicine is located in the House where the late Professor and Academician Nikolaos Louros and his wife Ioanna lived for many decades during the 50’s and 60’s. He was the most famous gynaecologist of his era and Personal Doctor to the then Royal Family, as his father had also been. Jointly the had delivered five Kings of Greece and one of Romania and Spain, as well as a many of Princes and Princesses. He was a renowned figure of Athenian Society with a special love for Art and History. His house was built by the top architect of his era, Nikos Valsmakis and is now listed by the Ministry of Culture. Upon his death, he bequeathed it to a Foundation for the History of Medicine. After its establishment in 1989 and up to 2011 it remained inactive. On that year, the current Board of Governors took office. Its members are the Professors Constantinos Trombukis as President, Athanasios Diamandopoulos as Vice-President, Stephanos Geroulanos as Secretary General, Giorgos Antonopoulos as Treasurer and the Dean of a Medical School in Greece as Member. The new Board spent all its efforts to repair the building, which was in a ruinous condition due to the passage of time and neglect. The whole Board worked towards the completion of the task, while Athanasios Diamandopoulos, Historian of Medicine and Archaeologist was responsible for the overall task. The Building returned to its previous glory and now welcomes the Scientific Community of Historians of Medicine. Its aims are to support research in and the teaching of this specialty, the writing of relevant works and providing hospitality for visiting Historians of Medicine. It is also used as the Head Office for a cluster of Societies for Humanities. Already several IAHN Members were hosted there and an open invitation stands for students in the field to stay there during their short-term studies in Athens’ Historical Libraries. Communication: Semitlou 5, Athens, Greece, P.C. 115 28 (+30) 210 7757177 info.louros[a]gmail.com http://www.louros-foundation.gr/ Athanasios Diamandopoulos WORLD KIDNEY DAY 2019, WARSAW, POLAND Professor Ryszard Gellert has been organising scientific sessions to mark the World Kidney Day in Warsaw, Poland for many years. It was not different this year as a Scientific Conference widely attended by prominent Polish nephrologists was held on March 15. Among them were also the representatives of both the historical session of the Polish Society of Nephrology and the IAHN with Bolesław Rutkowski and Janusz Ostrowski co-chairing one of the scientific session. The Conference was widely reported in the national public media. PROFESSOR NATALE DE SANTO - HONORARY MEMBER OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY On March 15, 2019, during the General Assembly, members of the Polish Society of Nephrology (PTN), at the request of a group of members of the Historical Section, the Polish Society of Nephrology awarded the title of an Honorary Member of the PTN to Professor Natale De Santo, co-founder of the IAHN and member of the Board of our Society. Natale De Santo was in the group of those eminent nephrologists from around the world who greatly contributed to the development of nephrology and the Polish Society of Nephrology. 1st CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSORS EMERITI Natale G De Santo, Emeritus University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy The first congress of the European Association of Professor Emeriti (EAPE) took place in Athens (Figure 1) on May 30,31 and June 1 2019, organized by Professor Dennis V. Cokkinos under the Auspices and with the Presence of the President of the Hellenic Republic, Mr Prokopios Pavlopoulos, Emeritus Professor of Constitutional Law. In the Great Hall of the University of Athens he gave a strong, intense talk on the great values of democracy and culture which drive the idea of Europe, and of all European cultural enterprises, and thanked the participants for the 1 st Honorary EAPE’s Membership. The aims of EAPE, founded in 2016, are the creation and preservation of ties among academic and professors Emeriti from all over Europe, the Collaboration of European Professors Emeriti, the submission of projects to relevant authorities concerning education, the exchange of knowledge and ideas stemming from, various scientific fields, visual and performing arts. As President Dennis V. Cokkinos said, by quoting Henry Adams, “A teacher affects eternity. He can never tell when his influence stops”. So there were many poignant reasons to dedicate the Congress to The Capital of Knowledge. Many stimulating topics were discussed: The Capital of Age; Back to Learning and the Role of Mentorship; Challenge of Fair Access to University; Health in Our Society; Management of Health Challenges through the Ages; Political Difficulties concerning Climate Changes; Contributions of Professors Emeriti to Science; Scientific Achievements through Ages; Culture and Environment; Activities of Academies and Emeriti Associations and very Special Lectures. The abstracts were published in Archives of Hellenic Medicine 2019;36(S2):10-39. At the official ceremony original ideas emerged from the talks of Meletios Athanasios Rector of the University of Athens, Stefanos Imellos President of the Academy of Athens, Dennis V. Cokkinos President of EAPE, and of Ieromymus II, Archbishop of Athens and of all Greece. The audience was particular attracted by the talks of Felix Unger ( Activities of the European Academy of Science and Arts ; Dianne Newel ( The Emeritus College of the University of British Columbia at Vancouver ); Pierre Corvol ( The French Academy of Sciences ), Daniel Couturier ( The French Academy of Medical Sciences ) and of Spyridon Flogaitis ( The European Public Law Organization ). Enthusiasm and expectations were generated by the talks of Tibor Szabo ( Global World Instability ), Raymond Ardaillous (Stem Cells), Giancarlo Bracale ( Future of Vascular Surgery ), Luigi Santini & Olimpio Guerriero ( Surgery of centenarians who are at risk of refusal of the cures they need ), Constantin Soldatos ( Sleep Disorders ), Luigi Campanella ( Antioxidant Therapy ), Lorenzo A. Pinna ( When science is unusually slow ), Maria K. Papathanassiou ( Archeoastronomy ), and of George Vasilikiotis ( The activities of the association of professors emeriti ). Teaching was the center of many well received presentations: Liv Mjelde ( Mentoring experiences departing from the Socratic Method ), Panos Vardas ( Big Data ), Natale G De Santo ( Teaching complexity: the case of medicine ),Theodore Papanghelis ( Teaching the idea of Europe ), Vincenzo Savica and Guido Bellinghieri ( The Third Culture ),Hartmuth Frank ( Science and Fiction:The periodic Table ), Ljubisa Mitrovic ( Transdisciplinary Research ) and John Yfantopoulos ( Continuing Education ). Sir Leslie Ebdon University of Herdfordshire at Luton in UK gave a special lecture on Giving the other the chance we had, the challenge of fair access to university . He discussed the reasons and the solution for the lack of opportunity for many who deserve and wish and are born in not rich families, “thus ethnicity, religion, or socioeconomic class determine your chances”. He discussed the potential benefits of “scholarships, grants, loans and fees and their effect on participation” as well as “long-term strategic outreach programs” and outlined “opportunities for Governments, Universities, charities, and retired academics to get involved”. The environment was the core of many outstanding talks: Michael Scoullos ( Sustainable Development ), Loucas G.Christophorou ( Energy and modern Civilization ), Amalia Virzo ( Fire in Changing World ), Lars Walloe ( Climate Changes ), Maria Oxenkuehn-Petropoulou ( Utilisation of Industrial Byproducts ), Panagiotis G Niarchos ( Bioethical Issues in Exploring the Space ). Christos Zerefos lectured on The Colour of Weather and Climate and explained that “Red-to green ratios as depicted in paintings by great masters in the past and with digital cameras at present can provide important environmental information towards estimating aerosol optical depths at sunset”. This short report can transfer neither the enthusiasm generated by the presentations nor the attentive atmosphere , nor the touch of class President Dennis V. Cokkinos and his charming wife Professor Vassiliki Christopoulou Cokkinos brought into the organization and venues of the congress as well as in the various social events including the visit of the Temple of Neptune at Cape Sounion. The visit of the European Public Law Organization (EPLO) was an occasion to understand structure, spirit and activities of that international school which has the headquarters in Athens. As illustrated by Spyridon Flogaitis, the Director of EPLO, a total of seventeen countries are represented in the board of directors. Cooperation with other institutions is tight. A role of observer is granted to EPLO at United Nation Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization and the International Organization of Migrants. The goal of EPLO is “to promote the world dialogue of civilization and to create and disseminate knowledge… on poverty, corruption, money laundering, human trafficking…and thus it supports scientific, educational research, training, teaching and technical cooperation activities in Europe and beyond”. The congress asked for definite roles of emeriti in education and science and asked to change the rules which allow participation but not adequate funding to senior scientists in European Projects (their expenditures may be partly covered). The wisest model appears that achieved in the United States of America where “retirement has been retired” in all jobs and allows American Academicians to make fruit of their talents till the very end. It is expected that also Europe will be able to follow that path. Historians of Nephrology at the 1 st Congress of the European Association of Professors Emeriti. A group of Historians of Nephrology participated actively in the Congress and gave presentations., including four past presidents of IAHN (Natale G. De Santo, Guido Bellinghieri, Athanasios Diamandopoulos and Vincenzo Savica) and Leon Fine a traditional presence and Lecturer at IAHN’s Congresses. Savica and Bellinghieri, who are coordinating the birth of the Italian branch of EAPE, discussed The third Culture and the role of EAPE in academia aiming to “to eliminate the dualism science-humanism”. Leon Fine who shares with Athanasios Diamandopoulos and Sherban Lupu―Emeritus Professor of Violin at the University of Illinois and now working in Bucharest in his homeland―the coordination of the Group on Culture of EAPE, spoke on How to not build a human kidney: speculative alternatives , “proposing an approach separating ultrafiltration from tubular secretion by assembling two separate organs, each delivering only those amounts which need to be eliminated from the body. So the need for a reabsorptive component is eliminated”. Guido Bellinghieri, President of the Sicilian branch of the Italian Organ Donor Association, gave a talk on A new need: selecting personalized treatment for frail elderly patents . He discussed the factors of fragility “social, economic, environmental, cultural, requiring personalized assistance”. Athanasios Diamandopoulos, gave a very original talk on The young as honorary olds: the other end of the emeriti spectrum . He sees EAPE made by “old professors still very active and productive”, and recalls that Simone de Beauvoir pointed out that “there is one form of experience that belongs only to those that are old that of old age itself”. He thoroughly discussed the entries “senators and gerontes” who also apply to young people elected to institutional and religious offices. Natale G De Santo, President Elect of EAPE, departed from the book of Derek De Solla Price (1963) Little Science Big Science on the cultural powers of retiring scientists, from the book of Rita levi Montalcini L’Asso nella Manica a Brandelli /The Ace in the Tattered Sleeve ) and from his own paper in Bull Acad Natle Méd 2017 on Creativity and scientific discoveries after 65 years of age : Science, Art and Aging . He introduced the late works many artists including Leonardo, Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Bailly, Okusai, Picasso, Gaudí, Miró, Moore, Niemeyer, Galilei, Montaigne, Corneille, Segal, Barnes, Amis, and a paper in Nature 2008 on ”retire retirement”. This to contrast the idea appeared in Times Higher Education (November 26, 2015) defining Professor emeriti the invisible academics . Martha Nussbaum’s recent book on Aging thoughtfully gives meaning and value to the abatement of age discrimination in USA, that allows to use creativity till the very end of life. The book of Martin Rees, Astronomer Royale in Cambridge, On the future was also reviewed . Rees points out that “It is a conventional wisdom that scientists do not improve with age and they burn out”. Therein he also reports that the physicist Wolfgang Pauli had a famous put-down for scientists past thirty. “Still so young, and already so unknown” . However De Santo supports the idea that we have a lot learn from great directors like Zubin Metha and Riccardo Muti, who continually adjourn and improve their interpretation of musical masterpieces a sign of active participation in research. NEWS ON IAHN’S MEMBERS AND THEIR HISTORICAL ACTIVITIES Following last year’s suit, as we informed in the 1 issue of the Bulletin, professor Vincenzo Savica, Past President of the IAHN, on May14, 2019 gave a lecture titled "The health organization at the time of Bourbons: 1816-1861”. This happened at the Academia Peloritana dei Pericolanti at the University of Messina, Italy . This was our colleague’s another success. For several years, members of the Historical Section of the Polish Society of Nephrology have had the opportunity to organise historical sessions during the most important nephrology events in the country. During the 13th Congress of the Polish Society of Nephrology, which took place in Poznan on June 1, a historical session took place during which prof. Bolesław Rutkowski gave a lecture entitled "Was the victor from Vienna defeated by kidney disease?", prof. Janusz Ostrowski talked about "Professor Stefan Dąbrowski (1877-1947) a doctor, scholar and politician", and prof. Stanisław Czekalski presented "60 years of haemodialysis in Poland". The organisation of historical sessions during nephrology congresses in Poland is an invaluable initiative of the IAHN members from Poland, which, hopefully, will be continued in the future. The 56th ERA-EDTA Congress in Budapest, Hungary, which took place on June 13-16, 2019, was an important event in the history of the IAHN . Despite various opinions regarding long-term cooperation between the ERA-EDTA and the IAHN, during the Congress IAHN members, as well as those interested in the history of nephrology, were able to present their experiences and research on this important field of medicine. During the symposium 36 "AKI: current problems in clinical practice" the President of the IAHN, Janusz Ostrowski, gave a lecture entitled "References to urinary tract diseases in the works of Thomas of Wroclaw (1297-1378), the Continuator of Arnaldo de Villanova Medical Thought". The symposium took place in the largest congress hall with very large attendance. During the poster session on June 16, 16 posters in the field of "History of Nephrology" were presented. Below are the titles and authors of 15 posters: Drugs and recipes for the treatment of kidney diseases by Nikolaos Myrepsos "Dymemeron", in the late Byzantine era by Elias Valiakos; Ioannis Stefanidis, GREECE BLOOD GROUPS DISCOVERY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS. MAJOR FIGURES by Janusz Ostrowski; Boleslaw Rutkowski, POLAND EYE AND KIDNEY INVOLVEMENT IN WILSON’S DISEASE: A CASE OF ORGAN BLINDNESS by Davide Viggiano; Natale Gaspare De Santo; Francesca Simonelli; Giovambattista Capasso, ITALY CAUSES OF DEATH DUE TO DISEASES OF THE GENITO-URINARY SYSTEM AND OF THE HEART AMONG 264 POPES IN THE YEARS 65-2005 AD: FIRST APPROACH by Natale Gaspare De Santo; Carmela Bisaccia; Luca Salvatore De Santo, ITALY SLEUTHING THE PATH CONNECTING ORGAN SPECIFIC WITH HOLISTIC MEDICINE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) by Dimitra Bacharaki; Athanasios Diamandopoulos; Demetrios Vlahakos, GREECE THE JOURNEY WITH KIDNEY FUNCTION ASSESSMENT: OLD IS NO LONGER GOLD by Ali M Shendi, EGYPT ON THE CORRELATION OF THE URINES' SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND THE NATURAL HISTORY OF A RENAL DISEASE ACCORDING TO ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL GREEK SOURCES by Diamandopoulos Athanasios, GREECE FRAGMENTS ON “DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS, URINARY TRACT AND OTHERS” QUOTED FROM ARCHIGENES IN RHAZES’S KITĀB AL-ḤĀWĪ FĪ AL-ṬIBB/LIBER CONTINENS by Ahmet Acıduman; ÇAğatay Aşkit, TURKEY HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DIFERENT MODELS OF BLOOD DEPURATION TECHNIQUES IN CRITICALLY DISEASED KIDNEY PATIENTS by Danijela Tasic; Stevan Glogovac; Radenkovic Sonja; Mitic Branka; Dimitrijevic Zorica A CASE OF PAROXYSMAL HAEMOGLOBINURIA AS DESCRIBED IN THE BOOK “LECTURES ON BRIGHT'S DISEASE” WRITTEN BY SIR ROBERT SAUNDBY - 1886 by Guido Gembillo; Guido Bellinghieri; Pietro Bellinghieri; Antonino Salvo; Domenico Santoro, ITALY TREATMENT WITH PLANTS WITH DIURETIC ACTIVITY IN MEDIEVAL SERBIA by Vladimir Sakac, SERBIA ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION - THE ORIGINS OF RECOGNITION by Michal Chmielewski, POLAND NILS ALWAll (1904-1986) THE INVENTOR OF ONE OF THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL KIDNEY AND HIS HUNGARIAN CONNECTIONS by András Karátson; Botond Csiky, HUNGARY MIROSLAV MYDLÍK (1932-2018) ONE OF THE INTELLECTUAL FATHERS OF SLOVAK NEPHROLOGY by Katarína Derzsiová, SLOVAK REPUBLIK HISTORY OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS IN TURKEY by Ayla San, TURKEY We look forward to further fruitful cooperation between the ERA-EDTA and the IAHN on the assumption that contemporary nephrology cannot develop without knowing its history. During the ERA-EDTA Congress, the IAHN Council Meeting was also held. The meeting was attended by: Janusz Ostrowski, IAHN President, members of the Board: Ahmet Aciduman, Katarina Derzsiova, Iwannis Stefanidis and Athanasios Diamandopoulos. During the meeting, mainly issues related to the upcoming IAHN Congress in Larissa, Greece in September this year were discussed. Boleslaw Rutkowski and Janusz Ostrowski published in Forum Nefrologiczne a work on dr. Irena Marcinek, an honorary member of the Polish Society of Nephrology. In the same journal, the same authors accompanied by Katarina Derzsiova, presented another work on the outstanding Czechoslovak nephrologist Albert Valko. Articles about honorary members of PTN have been issued by Janusz Ostrowski and Bolesław Rutkowski every quarter since 2013
No. 2, June 2019
More information on the next IAHN congress in Larissa, Greece is available on our website.
Janusz Ostrowski Editor-in-Chief
Professor Ryszard Gellert
First left: Prof. Marian Klinger, prof. Boleslaw Rutkowski, dr Dorota Daniewska, prof. Janusz Ostrowski
Professor Natale De Santo
Cover of the programme of the Congress
First left: Prof. Andrzej Oko, prof. Zofia Wańkowicz, prof. Michał Nowicki
First left: prof. Janusz Ostrowski, prof. Stanisław Czekalski, prof. Bolesław Rutkowski
Prof. Janusz Ostrowski
First left: prof. Ahmet Aciduman, prof. Athanasios Diamandopoulos, prof. Iwannis Stefanidis, dr Katarina Derzsiova, prof. Janusz Ostrowski
First left: Prof. Sandor Sonkodi, dr Katarina Derzsiova, prof. Janusz Ostrowski